The device in the image above should be very familiar to comic book fans, but even if you don’t recognise it, it’s still fairly easy to see that whoever has Bucky is using it to brainwash him. In the source material that the movie is based on, Cap’s former sidekick is brain-damaged and has amnesia. Although that could be the case here too, it makes a lot more sense that his memories would be manipulated in order for him to better serve his villainous new masters.
However, the machinery pictured above (similar versions of which have been used to deprogram brainwashed individuals by S.H.I.E.L.D.) isn’t the only thing which should be familiar. That scientist keeping a watchful eye on The Winter Soldier? It’s comic book writer and Winter Soldier creator, Ed Brubaker!